**Titration**

A

unknown molarity of solution using a solution with a known molarity.

There are two basic types of titrations: a rough titration, and an exact titration.

__titration__is a process in which a neutralization reaction in performed to find theunknown molarity of solution using a solution with a known molarity.

There are two basic types of titrations: a rough titration, and an exact titration.

A
rough titration is performed to find the approximate amount of acid needed to neutralize a base, or the approximate amount of base needed to neutralize an acid. |
An
exact titration is performed to find the exact amount of acid needed to neutralize a base, or the exact amount of base needed to neutralize an acid. |

## Titration Procedure:

Use the following process to perform a rough / exact titration:

1. Apply safety goggles; secure loose clothing and tie back hair if necessary.

2. Gather all materials.

3. Set up a clamp stand.

4. Wash out and thoroughly dry two 100mL beakers.

5. Label one beaker "acid," and the other beaker "base."

6. Pour around 80 mL of acid into the beaker labeled "acid"; pour around 80 mL of base into the beaker labeled "base."

7. Take a burette, and wash it out with water. Then wash it out with the acid, so that the only remaining liquid in the burette is acid.

8. Attach the cleansed burette to the clamp stand, and place a funnel into the top of it.

*The funnel should have a capacity of around 20 mL (not too small).

9. Fill the burette around half way with the acid, and then record the measurement of the acid in the burette.

10. Take a 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask.

11. Take a volumetric pipette, an thoroughly wash it out with water. Then, wash it out once more with base, so that the only remaining liquid is the base.

12. Fill the pipette with exactly 10 cubic centimeters of the base, and then empty the base into the Erlenmeyer flask.

13. Put 3 drops of phenolphthalein into the base. The solution will turn dark purple.

14. Place the Erlenmeyer flask under the burette, and begin spinning the flask so that the base consistently whirls around in the flask.

**Materials:**- Safety goggles
- Acid
- Base
- 2 100 mL beakers
- 1 Erlenmeyer flask
- 1 burette
- 1 volumetric pipette
- Phenolphthalein

**Procedure:**1. Apply safety goggles; secure loose clothing and tie back hair if necessary.

2. Gather all materials.

3. Set up a clamp stand.

4. Wash out and thoroughly dry two 100mL beakers.

5. Label one beaker "acid," and the other beaker "base."

6. Pour around 80 mL of acid into the beaker labeled "acid"; pour around 80 mL of base into the beaker labeled "base."

7. Take a burette, and wash it out with water. Then wash it out with the acid, so that the only remaining liquid in the burette is acid.

8. Attach the cleansed burette to the clamp stand, and place a funnel into the top of it.

*The funnel should have a capacity of around 20 mL (not too small).

9. Fill the burette around half way with the acid, and then record the measurement of the acid in the burette.

10. Take a 100 mL Erlenmeyer flask.

11. Take a volumetric pipette, an thoroughly wash it out with water. Then, wash it out once more with base, so that the only remaining liquid is the base.

12. Fill the pipette with exactly 10 cubic centimeters of the base, and then empty the base into the Erlenmeyer flask.

13. Put 3 drops of phenolphthalein into the base. The solution will turn dark purple.

14. Place the Erlenmeyer flask under the burette, and begin spinning the flask so that the base consistently whirls around in the flask.

For a rough titration:15. Fully activate the burette so that the acid flows into the base. 16. Continue to whirl the solution around the flask. 17. When the solution turns clear, immediately turn off the flow of acid into the solution. 18. Observe the burette to find the final amount of acid (still left in the burette). 19. Subtract the final amount of acid from the initial amount, to find out the amount of acid needed to neutralize the solution. 20. Clean and put away materials. |
For an exact titration:14. Fully activate the burette so that the acid flows into the base. 15. Continue to whirl the solution around the flask. 16. Observe the burette, and once 6 cubic centimeters of acid have been added, decrease the flow of acid so that it flows in drop by drop. 17. When the solution turns clear, immediately turn off the flow of acid into the solution. 18. Observe the burette to find the final amount of acid (still left in the burette). 19. Subtract the final amount of acid from the initial amount, to find out the amount of acid needed to neutralize the solution. 20. Clean and put away materials. |

## Calculating Molarity:

To figure out the molarity of a solution, one can perform a titration, and use the results to calculate it.

When calculating molarity, the following equation is used:

Mv = Mv

or

(Unknown Molarity [x]) * (10 Cubic Centimeters) = (Known Molarity) * (Volume of Acid / Base used in Titration)

If a titration is performed with a 10 cubic centimeters of a 1M base, and 7 cubic centimeters of an acid with an unknown molarity:

Mv = Mv

(x) (10) = (1) (7) ---> 10x = 7 ---> x = 7/10 ---> x = .7

The Molarity of the solution would be .7M.

When calculating molarity, the following equation is used:

Mv = Mv

or

(Unknown Molarity [x]) * (10 Cubic Centimeters) = (Known Molarity) * (Volume of Acid / Base used in Titration)

**Example:**If a titration is performed with a 10 cubic centimeters of a 1M base, and 7 cubic centimeters of an acid with an unknown molarity:

Mv = Mv

(x) (10) = (1) (7) ---> 10x = 7 ---> x = 7/10 ---> x = .7

The Molarity of the solution would be .7M.

Check out this video of a titration being performed!

*Please excuse the loud Spanish singer in the background.

*Please excuse the loud Spanish singer in the background.

Finished with Titration?